Since the shoulder is the most mobile joint of the human body, the complications associated with it are also many
i. Shoulder Dislocation
The shoulder Dislocation may be partial or complete. The dislocation may occur in any possible degree and may also tear the ligaments. Both types of dislocations (partial and complete) cause pain and unsteadiness in the shoulder.
As a treatment to resolve this issue, the ball of the upper arm bone (humerus) is placed back into the joint socket. This process is called a closed reduction. Severe pain stops immediately once the shoulder joint is back in place.
It is the irritation of the tendons which compose the rotator cuff as they pass through the subacromial space. Injuries to rotator cuff tendons may be caused due to vascular factors, mechanical factors, presence of unfused acromion, thickening of the subacromial bursa, or degenerative factors.
iii. Rotator Cuff Tear
The rotator cuff is the group of four tendons and muscles that surround the shoulder joint. When the rotator cuff is injured, it’s actually the tendons that are injured. When there is an injury caused to these tendons, they cannot function properly.
The rotator cuff is important with lifting movements of the shoulder. Without a properly functioning rotator cuff, there are some limits in normal shoulder function.
Apart from medications and physical therapy, if the issue is seen to be unresolved, surgery has to be carried out. An arthroscopic surgery, has been used to identify and repair areas of damage to the rotator cuff without having to make large incisions around the shoulder.
Iv. AC Joint Injuries
The acromioclavicular (AC) joint along with ligaments connects the collarbone and shoulder blade. An injury to the AC joint is like a shoulder separation. The type of shoulder separation depends on how much the tear of AC joint or coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments is that hold the joint in place.
Type I = the AC ligament is slightly torn, but there is no damage to the CC ligament.
Type II = the AC ligament is completely torn, and there’s little or no tear to the CC ligament.
Type III = both the AC and CC ligaments are completely torn. In this case, the collarbone separates from the end of the shoulder blade.
v. Frozen Shoulder
In this condition, the shoulder stiffens reducing the mobility of the shoulder. It is also termed as adhesive capsulitis. The shoulder is comprised of three bones: The scapula – shoulder blade, the collarbone, and the upper arm bone or humerus. Basically is a ball-and-socket joint, where the round head of the upper arm bone fits into this socket. Connective tissue, known as the shoulder capsule, surrounds this joint. Synovial fluid enables the joint to move without friction. The condition of a frozen shoulder happens when scar tissue forms in the shoulder. This causes the shoulder joint’s capsule to thicken and tighten, with less movement or a movement that may be stiff and painful.